Alaska’s permafrost is melting.

The permafrost in Alaska is melting and is starting to thaw. By 2050 much of this frozen carbon could be gone and will have contributed to climate change. It is in the Arctic that one can see the effects of climate change as the warming is twice as fast as in other parts of the planet.

The permafrost is a layer of ground that is usually always frozen. In Alaska, much of the ground underneath is permafrost. It extends a few feet below the surface to hundreds of feet below. It contains vast amounts of carbon in organic matter that has been frozen for decades and decades coming from vegetable matter. If this ancient carbon material begins to thaw, microbes will digest this and convert it into carbon dioxide and methane, two gases that contribute to global warming.

The problem of all this thawing is not only for the planet, but for the communities that live in those areas. What one sees is sagging infrastructures with the slumping of land as ice loses volume and turns into water. Roads and airport runways have now to be re-inforced with liquid-filled pipes that transfer heat out of the permafrost to prevent slumping.

Naturally, the thawing of the permafrost will be slow. There is a massive amount of carbon below the surface and the temperatures are still cold, but less so than before. It was a freezer before but now it is turning into a refrigerator. It will take milleniums before all the permafrost is thawed out. Perhaps before then our gas emisions will have fallen enough to prevent this man-made disaster from happening.


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Climate change affecting land in Africa.

You would think that Africa does not have a problem of good land, but it does. It is a problem now compounded by climate change as well as other factors such as more people, erosion, poaching and soil degradation.

In various parts of Africa people are on the move, desperate to find usable land as good farmland is diminishing. The problem is that the population is rising and the quality of land is going down. This in turn means competition for that good land and usually those with the guns get that land.

As most people in Africa live off the land, having too many people for that land that is getting rarer and rarer is a recipe for turmoil and war. The sizes of farms now are going down as the typical family is now larger. The slices of farmland are now smaller and it is harder to live off them. If one adds to the mix climate change and the fact that drought and desertification are on the rise one can see that the future is grim. Violence is in the cards. More and more countries in Africa will suffer from famines. This year three countries will suffer from this while in the past only one would suffer in a bad year.

In many areas the soil has dried up and is exhausted. Even with rain the quality of the soil is impacted. This means that many countries will have to rely on imports from abroad. If one adds the protection of wildlife to the mix it is clear that climate change is a problem not in the future but right now for most African countries. And private companies and investors are not helping as they are buying good farmland now knowing that it is diminishing rapidly and the price of that commodity will simply rise in the future, thereby increasing the difficulties for the average African farmer who has little money.


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On the trail of the hummingbird moth.

Those of you who read this blog know that I like to take pictures and have been doing so for the last twenty years. I like to take pictures of all sorts of animals and insects but one insect in particular that gives me a thrill to photograph is the hummingbird moth, also known as Hemaris diffinis in Latin. It is an insect despite the name and this is because it mimics the flight and behaviour of a hummingbird.

I remember quite well the first time that I observed it, not knowing what it was. At first I thought that it was a bumble-bee as it has yellow and black segments. A quick look at it seems to confirm this until one see the differences; the body of the insect is longer and the shape of the wings are larger and different. Most importantly they are clear.

I had great success last year in capturing several pictures of them in flight, but this year was another story. I simply could not find them and yet, some photographers had reported seeing them and had taken great pictures of them. My luck was to change last week.

These insects like to feed the nectar of purple and pink cone flowers with their long tongue. They tend to hover around the plants and never really stop, moving from one to another in quick succession. Taking a picture of them is a challenge for me, with a camera that is 7 years old and a lens found in lens kit sold ordinarily. Just to take a good picture of it when the insect flies requires me to use a speed of at least 1/1600 of a second. Better lenses and cameras might need half that speed. My friend takes pictures of these insects at 1/500 of a second.

Here I was, looking carefully at pink and purple cone flowers when suddenly my eyes saw something in the sun resting on some green plants. I approached and saw that it was the hummingbird moth seemingly resting. I carefully approached it and took several pictures from the side, seeing the dark eye perfectly. It was the first time that I had seen it immobile.

After a few minutes I went on scouting again and found one that was active, sipping the nectar from a purple cone flower. Luckily the sun was shining and the insect varied its position so that sometimes I had it facing from the side and other times its back.

These insects are most active when the sun is out and the temperatures are at their peak. This is probably why few people had seen them in the past weeks as we have had fairly cool weather with not much sun. The past two weeks seemed to have seen an explosion of them.

I was lucky as during that day I saw two of them on the same purple cone flower. I took many pictures and sure enough I had several where the eye of the insect was clear. One has to take many pictures in order to have a few that are good. Hopefully this insect will be more abundant in the following weeks as the summer season continues.

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South Asia is warming up.

A new study seems to confirm that South Asia will face a threat in the future from heat and humidity driven by global warming. At least 30% of the millions of people living there may be exposed to this deadly combination.

We humans cannot easily survive in areas where the humidity is high, or what is called the “wet bulb” temperature recorded by weather stations. If wet bulb temperatures in our environment are greater than 35C then our ability to sweat and to dissipate heat diminishes and even the most fit individual would die in around 6 hours.

Even a wet bulb temperature of 31C is a dangerous level for most people. In 2015, in India and Pakistan a heat wave killed 3500 people. This new study seems to show that we would go from zero people affected by wet bulb temperatures to 30% of the people affected in the area. A lot of people work in agriculture in those areas.

The only solution is to keep the increase of the worldwide temperature to just over two degrees for the worst case scenarios to be averted. And India and Pakistan would not see deadly heat waves arriving every year and killing thousands of people. But the prospects of this happening is now seriously in doubt.

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Earth’s big carnivores are in trouble.

Some of the world’s largest carnivores have lost 90% of their historic range according to a recent study. These are; the Ethiopian wolf, red wolf, tiger, lion, African wild dog and the cheetah. If they are to survive longterm they have to be reintroduced in the areas where they used to live. A difficult prospect.

Scientists looked at historical maps of 500 years ago to come to the sad conclusion that these big carnivores are in trouble. This contraction is a global issue. Out of 25 large carnivores 15 of them have lost more than 60% of their historic range.

Man is part of the solution to expand the range again of these carnivores. People have to be willing to live again with some of these carnivores such as the wolf. Human tolerance is key.

As well, protected areas will work in regions where there is low human density, little livestock and limited agriculture. If one adds larger networks of protected land and favorable human attitudes carnivores can come back to their old haunts.

There is already some success as in parts of Europe the brown bear, the lynx and the gray wolf are coming back to the areas that were once theirs. The dingo and several types of hyena are also doing well as compared to the lion and tiger.

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The Cook Islands in the news.

The Cook Islands have just created one of the biggest marine sanctuaries in the world. This sanctuary will protect parts of the Pacific ocean that are three times as big as France. This zone will be 1.9 million of square kilometers of the ocean.

The Cook Islands count only 10,000 people and its 15 islands cover about 236 square kilometers. The idea of this sanctuary is not to restrict any human activity but to control it and to exploit it in a durable fashion for years to come. The sanctuary will comprise an area of 320,000 square kilometers where fishing will be forbidden.

The Prime Minister of the Cook Islands Henry Puna hopes that this new sanctuary will inspire other nations around the world to do the same and protect more of the oceans.

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The ice is melting faster!

Scientists in the U.K have just determined that an increase in sunshine in the past 20 years is having an effect on the ice melt in Greenland. This could literally affect millions of people worldwide. If the Greenland ice sheet melted we could see global sea levels rise by 6 meters.

It has been estimated that 25 per cent of global sea level rise can be attributed to the melting of the ice sheet on Greenland. Since 1995 Greenland has lost about 4.000 gigatons of ice.

Scientists believe that as the Arctic is warming faster, it is affecting the weather over Greenland. There are less clouds and more clear skies in now. This increase in sunlight explains about two-thirds of the ice melt in Greenland since the 1990’s. Since 2003 ice loss has nearly doubled.

No doubt that things could simply go on towards the day when the ice sheet in Greenland is no more, and millions of people who live by the shore will be severely affected. Just slowing the rate of melt will be difficult. Perhaps we should prepare people for what seems inevitable, a global rise in sea levels in the next 25 years that could be catastrophic.

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